Pragmatic Discourse of Political Parties in Albania

Roland Lami

Abstract


In our context, the ideological confusion stems from the fact that neither of the two
main parties, SP and DP fails to build an ideological (substantive) identity for itself
and its electorate that is supposed to represent. Unable to build determinate social
and political identities (rural or urban, liberal or conservative, cosmopolitan or
nationalist, and so on), political parties mobilize the electorate mainly advocating the
need for reforms, Euro-Atlantic integration processes, regardless of the implications
concerning doctrinaire aspect. Thus, each of the political forces uses its discourse
with elements of the Right and the Left, as a result of internal and external factors.
This problem is explained based on the structural-functionalist perspective, while
as method is used the method of critical analysis of the discourse to examine the
qualitative data collected through the analysis of various documents.
Keywords: Ideology, Discourse, Structural-Functionalist, Populism, Political
Parties.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Adam, S. (1992). The Idea of Civil Society. New York: Free Press.

Almond, G. A. (1968). Comparative Political Systems. Macridis: Dorsey Press.

Andrews, C. M., Ovalioglu, G. (1994). Albania and the World Bank: Building the

Future. World Bank.

Agolli, D. (2009). Devijim nga aspiratat e majta. Panorama, Tirane:Panorama

Group, 12 Mars, f. 2.

Balfour, R, Stratula, C. (2011). The democratic transformation of the Ballkans.

Issue paper No. 66, European Politics and Institutions programms, pp. 6 -10.

Barnes, S. H. (1997). Left, Right, and the Italian Voter. Comparative Political

Studies 4(2): 57- 75.

Barbullushi, O. (2008). Kėshtu foli Evropa, - Mbi ndėrtimin dhe pėrdorimin e

europianizimit nė ligjėrimin zyrtar dhe politik, Polis Nr.4, f. 4.

Bell, D. (1960). The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the

Fifties. Glencoe, IL: Free Press..

Bell, D. (2000). The End of Ideology. On the Exhaustionof Political Ideas in the

Fifties. Harvard: Harvard UniversityPress.

Biberaj, E. (2001). Shqipėria ne tranzicion: rruga e vėshtirė drejt demokracisė.

Tiranė: Ora.

Bobbio, R. (1997). Majtas dhe Djathtas, Tiranė: Arbri.

Bugajski, J. (2002). Political Parties of Eastern Europe. London & New York:

Westview Press.

Brants, K., Voltmer, K. (2011). Political Communication in Postmodern

Democracy. New York: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN.

Eagelton, T. (1991) Ideology. New York: Verso.

Elbasani, A. (2004). Albania in Transition: Manipulation or Appropriation of

International Norms. Southeast European Politics, 5:1.

Evans, G., Heath, A., Lallje, M. (1996). Measuring Left-Right and Libertarian-

Authoritarian Values in the British Electorate. British Journal of Sociology 47: 93-

European Bank for Reconstruction and Devlopment (EBRD) (1996). London:

Transition Report.

Fuga, A. (2003). Majtas jo djathtas. Tiranė: Ora.

Fukayama, F. ( 1992). The end of history and the last man. New York: NY Press.

Fuchs, D., Klingemann, D. H. (1989). The Left-Right Schema. In Continuities in

Political Action A Longitudinal Study of Political Orientations in Three Western

Democracies, eds. M. Kent Jennings and J. W. van Deth. Berlin Walter de Gruyter.

Freeden, M, (2003). Ideology: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press.

Freedom in the World shih http// www.freedom house.org/template.cfm? page 15

( 12 February 2011).

Freire, A. (2006). Bringing Social Identities Back In: The Social Anchors of Left

Right Orientation in Western Europe. International Political Science Review 27:

78.

Frydman, R., Rapaczynski, A., Earle, J. (1993). The Privatization Process in

Central Europe. Budapest: Central European University Press.

Gajo, A. (2000). Shqipėria demokraci nė deficit. Tiranė: Muza.

Heywood, A. (2007). Political ideologies: An introduction. New York: Palgrave

Macmillan.

Hoxha, A. (2009). Reforma institucionale dhe strategjia kombetare te zhvillimit

ekonomik dhe social e program i saj pėr rritjen ekonomike dhe reduktimin e

varfėrisė, ISB, f. 23.

Huber, J., Inglehart, R. (1995). Expert Interpretations of Party Space and Party

Location in 42 Societies. Party Politics 1: 73-111.

Inglehart, R., Klingemann, D.H. (1976). Party Identification, Ideological

Preference and the Left- Right Dimension among Western Mass Publics. In Party

Identification and Beyond, eds. Ian Budge, Ivor Crewe and Dennis Farlie. London

lohn Wiley & Sons.

Kaldor, M., Ivan, V. (1997). Democratization in East and Central European

International Affairs 73.1, p. 80.

Kajsiu, B. (2007). Demokratizimi pa politikė: Baza konceptuale e qasjes

ndėrkombėtare nė Shqipėri, Polis Nr 4, Tiranė :UET PRESS, f. 32.

Kajsiu, B. (2009). Amerikanizimi i politikės ose Rreziku Mediatik, Polis Nr 8

Tiranė: UET PRESS, f. 70.

Kajsiu, B. (2014). Kujt i sherben racizmi krahinor dhe fetar. Panorama, Tirana:

Panorama Group, 13 shtator, f. 20.

Krasniqi, A. (2007). Partitė Politike nė Shqipėri (1920 2006). Tiranė: ISHSP.

Krasniqi, A. (2003). Shoqėria civile nė Shqipėri, Tiranė. GEER.

Klingemann, H., Fucht, D., Zielonka, F. (2006). Democracy and Political Culture

in Eastern Europe. New York: Routledge.

Laclau, E. (2005). On Populisy Reason, London, New York: Verso.

Laclau, E. & Mouffe, Ch. (2001). Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a

Radical Democatic Politics. London: Verso.

Linz, J., Alfred C. S. (1996). Toward Consolidated Democracies. Journal of

Democracy. 7 (2):16.

Lubonja, F. (2010). Zbatimi djathtas dhe e majta qė na duhet. Panorama. Tirane:

Panorama Group, f. 17.

Mair, P. (2000). Left-Right Orientations. In The Oxford Handbook of Political

Behaviour, eds. Russell J. Dalton and Hans-Dieter Klingemann. Oxford University

Press.

Meir, P. ( 2004). Political Parties and Electoral Change. London: SAGE

Meksi, A. (2010). Dhjetor 90: Dokumente dhe materiale. Tiranė: UET PRESS.

Migret, E. (2010). Sociologjia e komunikimit dhe e mediave, Tiranė: UET PRESS.

Newman. M. (2008). Socializmi. Tiranė: Ideart.

ODonnell, G., Schmitter, Ph. (1986). Transitions from Authoritarian

Rule:Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies, Baltimore, MD: The

Johns Hopkin University Press.

Pėllumbi, S. (2002). Sprova nė sociologjinė politike. Tiranė: DUDAJ.

Pėllumbi, S. (2009). Pluralizmi politik. Tirane: IS.

Tarifa, F., Krisafi, K., Tarifa, E. (2009). Paradigma e tranzicionit demokratik

Tiranė: Ombra GVG.

Tarifa, F. ( 2012). Dinamikat e modernizimit pluralist. Tiranė: GVG.

Tarifa, F. (2010). Tranzicioni dhe riprodhimi i elitės nė Shqipėri: Hipoteza tė

testueshme pėr njė sintezė teorike. Polis Nr 9, Tirane:UET PRESS, f. 14.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.